Information On Glasgow
Glasgow is the largest city in Scotland and fifth most populous in the United Kingdom. The city is situated on the River Clyde in the country's West Central Lowlands.
Glasgow grew from a small rural settlement on the River Clyde to become one of the largest seaports in Britain. Expanding from the medieval bishopric of Glasgow and the later establishment of the University of Glasgow in the 15th century, it became a major centre of the Scottish Enlightenment in the 18th century. From the 18th century the city also grew as one of Britain's main hubs of transatlantic trade with British North America and the British West Indies.
With the onset of the Industrial Revolution, the population and economy of Glasgow and the surrounding region expanded exponentially to become one of the world's pre-eminent centres of heavy engineering; most notably in the shipbuilding and marine engineering industry, which produced many innovative and famous vessels. Glasgow was known as the "Second City of the British Empire" for much of theVictorian era and Edwardian period.
Today it is one of Europe's top ten financial centres and is home to many of Scotland's leading businesses. Glasgow is also ranked as the 57th most liveable city in the world.
In the late 19th and early 20th centuries Glasgow grew in population, eventually reaching a peak of 1,128,473 in 1939, and was the fourth-largest city in Europe, after London, Paris and Berlin.
In the 1960s, comprehensive urban renewal projects resulting in large-scale relocation of people to new towns and peripheral suburbs, followed by successive boundary changes, have reduced the current population of the City of Glasgow council area to 592,000, with 1,199,629 people living in the Greater Glasgow urban area. The entire region surrounding the conurbation covers approximately 2.3 million people, 41% of Scotland's population. Glasgow will host the 2014 Commonwealth Games and is currently bidding to host the 2018 Summer Youth Olympics.
Sport In Glasgow
The world's first international football match was held in 1872 at the West of Scotland Cricket Club's Hamilton Crescent ground in the Partick area of the city. The match, between Scotland andEngland finished 0–0.
Glasgow is one of only three cities (along with Liverpool in 1985 and Madrid in 1986) to have had two football teams in European finals in the same season: in 1967 Celtic F.C. competed in theEuropean Cup final with Rangers F.C. competing in the Cup Winners' Cup final. Celtic F.C. were the first British team to win the European Cup, under the management of Jock Stein in 1967.
Hampden Park, which is Scotland's national football stadium, holds the European record for attendance at a football match: 149,547 saw Scotland beat England 3-1 in 1937, in the days before leading British stadia became all-seated. Hampden Park has hosted the final of the UEFA Champions League on three occasions, most recently in 2002 and hosted the UEFA Cup Final in 2007. Celtic Park (60,832 seats) is located in the east end of Glasgow, and Ibrox Stadium (51,082 seats) on the south side.
Glasgow has three professional football clubs: Celtic F.C. and Rangers F.C. together known as the Old Firm, and Partick Thistle F.C. A fourth club, Queen's Park F.C., is an amateur club which plays in the Scottish Division 3. Prior to this, Glasgow had five other professional clubs: Clyde F.C.which moved to Cumbernauld, plus Third Lanark A.C., Cambuslang F.C., Cowlairs F.C. andClydesdale F.C., who all went bankrupt. There are a number of Scottish Junior Football Association clubs within the city as well, such as Pollok F.C., Maryhill F.C., Ashfield F.C. and Petershill F.C., as well as countless numbers of amateur teams.
The history of football in the city, as well as the status of the Old Firm, attracts many visitors to football matches in the city throughout the season. The Scottish Football Association, the national governing body, and the Scottish Football Museum are based in Glasgow, as are the Scottish Football League, Scottish Premier League, Scottish Junior Football Association andScottish Amateur Football Association. The Glasgow Cup was a once popular tournament, which was competed for by Celtic, Rangers, Clyde, Partick Thistle and Queen's Park. The competition is now played for by the youth sides of the five teams.
2014 Commonwealth Games
On 9 November 2007, Glasgow was selected to be the host city of the 2014 Commonwealth Games. The games will be based on a number of existing and newly constructed sporting venues across the city, including a refurbished Hampden Park, Kelvingrove Park, the Kelvin Hall, and the planned Scottish National Arena at the SECC.
The opening ceremony will be held at Celtic Park. Plans have already been drawn up for a Commonwealth Games campus in the east end of the city, which will include a new indoor arena, the Sir Chris Hoy velodrome and accommodation facilities in Dalmarnock and Parkhead, with an upgraded Aquatics Centre at nearby Tollcross Park. 2014 will be the third time the Games have been held in Scotland.
The 4th Commonwealth Nations Bridge Championships will also be held in Glasgow from 8–14 September 2014.
Very little of medieval Glasgow remains; the two main landmarks from this period being the 15th century Provand's Lordship and 13th century St. Mungo's Cathedral. The vast majority of the city as seen today dates from the 19th century. As a result, Glasgow has an impressive heritage of Victorian architecture: the Glasgow City Chambers; the main building of the University of Glasgow, designed by Sir George Gilbert Scott; and the Kelvingrove Art Gallery and Museum, designed by Sir John W. Simpson, are notable examples.
The city is notable for architecture designed by the Glasgow School, the most notable exponent of that style being Charles Rennie Mackintosh. Mackintosh was an architect and designer in the Arts and Crafts Movement and the main exponent of Art Nouveau in the United Kingdom, designing numerous noted Glasgow buildings such as the Glasgow School of Art, Willow Tearooms and the Scotland Street School Museum. A hidden gem of Glasgow, also designed by Mackintosh, is the Queen's Cross Church, the only church by the renowned artist to be built.
Another architect who had an enduring impact on the city's appearance was Alexander Thomson, with notable examples including the Holmwood House villa.
The buildings reflect the wealth and self-confidence of the residents of the "Second City of the Empire". Glasgow generated immense wealth from trade and the industries that developed from the Industrial Revolution. The shipyards, marine engineering, steel making, and heavy industry all contributed to the growth of the city.
Many of the city's most impressive buildings were built with red or blond sandstone, but during the industrial era those colours disappeared under a pervasive black layer of soot and pollutants from the furnaces, until the Clean Air Act was introduced in 1956. In recent years many of these buildings have been cleaned and restored to their original appearance.
Modern buildings in Glasgow include the Glasgow Royal Concert Hall, and along the banks of the Clyde are the Glasgow Science Centre and the Scottish Exhibition and Conference Centre, whose Clyde Auditorium was designed by Sir Norman Foster, and is affectionately known as the "Armadillo". In 2006 Zaha Hadid won a competition to design the new Museum of Transport.
Hadid's museum opened on the waterfront in 2011 and has been renamed the Riverside Museum to reflect the change in location and to celebrate Glasgow's rich industrial heritage stemming from the Clyde.
Glasgow's impressive historical and modern architectural traditions were celebrated in 1999 when the city was designated UK City of Architecture and Design, winning the accolade over Liverpool and Edinburgh.
The seven-storey Tolbooth Steeple is Glasgow Cross`s most important feature and it is topped by a clock and a stone crown. This was once part of a much larger building, the Tolbooth, which provided accommodation for the Town Clerk`s office, the council hall and the city prison. The debtors` prison had a steady stream of inmates who elected their own `provost` and generally ran the place like an exclusive club. They produced their own regulations, including one from 1789 which stated: `It is firmly and irrevocably agreed upon that the members of these rooms shall not permit the jailor or turnkeys to force any person or persons into their apartments, who are thought unworthy of being admitted.` There was even a rule about celebrating freedom: `Every member, when liberated, shall treat his fellow-prisoners with one shilling`s worth of what liquor they think proper.`
The Tolbooth provided the backdrop to many of the city`s dramas and it was here that witches, thieves and murderers were summarily dealt with, by hanging if necessary. It also had a special platform from which proclamations were read, important in the days before general literacy. The paved area (the `plainstanes`) in front of the Tolbooth was the `in place` to be seen and here the rich paraded in their finery, particularly the Tobacco Lords, attired in red cloaks and sporting gold-topped canes.
The Clyde Arc (known locally as the Squinty Bridge), is a road bridge spanning the River Clyde in Glasgow, in west central Scotland, connectingFinnieston, near the Clyde Auditorium and SECC with Pacific Quay and Glasgow Science Centre in Govan. A prominent feature of the bridge is its innovative curved design and the way that it crosses the river at an angle. The Arc is the first city centre traffic crossing over the river built since the Kingston Bridge was opened to traffic in 1969.
Crime In Glasgow
Total crime record for City of Glasgow: 169,855
Road traffic collisions and casualties: 1,810 (30 Fatal)
Domestic Abuse Incidents: 8,895
Racist Incidents: 1,320
Homophobic Incidents: 174
G1 (murder, assault) 3,069
G2 (rape, prostitution) 1,099
G3 (theft, housebreaking) 26,071
G4 (fire-raising, vandalism) 13,692
G5 (drug related, knife possession) 17,234
G6 (common assault, breach of peace) 57,870
G7 (motor vehicle offences) 50,820
Murder count: 47
Attempted murder: 250
Serious Assault: 1,785
Robbery and assault: 683
Cruel and unnatural treatment of children: 843
Firearm possession with intent to harm: 61
Number of 8-17 year olds who have committed crimes/offences: 30,045
Number of missing persons: 22,570
Number of registered sex offenders (in the community): 1,190
Number of offences of supply & possession: 4,263
Weight of Class A drug seizures: 79,451grams
Fraud in Glasgow
Fraud cases in Scotland have halved in the past year, according to the latest figures from consultants KPMG.
While the UK saw the highest number of serious fraud cases for 22 years, Scotland continued to see a downward trend, according to KPMG's "fraud barometer" for the first half of 2010.
In Scotland, there were six cases of fraud worth £3.06m in that period.
This was down nearly £16m from the 12 cases worth £19.5m in the same period of 2009.
The barometer keeps track of serious cases of fraud, concerning sums in excess of £100,000 in UK courts.
It showed there were 166 cases across the UK in the first six months of this year, with a total value of £608.5m.
Mortgage fraud accounted for half of all fraud committed across the UK, but this fell to an 18-month low north of the border.
KPMG said there were three cases of mortgage fraud brought before courts in Scotland in the first six months of 2010, which totalled more than £2.4m between them.
These included Ex-Dunfermline Athletic and Berwick Rangers footballer Graeme Davidson, who was charged over an alleged £355,000 mortgage fraud in March, following raids on properties in Edinburgh and Musselburgh.
In the same month, Edward Lyons, a member of a notorious Glasgow crime family, pleaded guilty to a £259,000 mortgage fraud by giving lenders false income details at Glasgow Sheriff Court.
But in both 2008 and 2009, there were two cases brought before the courts with a total value of £7.4m and £6.1m respectively.
Ken Milliken, head of forensic at KPMG in Scotland, said fraud flourished in times of economic uncertainty.
"It is highly probable that the problem is far bigger than our figures demonstrate," he said.
"Where there is economic uncertainty, fraud tends to follow - from companies in distress to individuals with financial worries, many turn to fraud as a solution.
"The recession could act as a catalyst for fraud and while today's figures are heartening, there may be a surge on the way as frauds committed at the peak of the recession are uncovered."
He said the Scottish government had invested in measures to help the fight against serious fraud, but claimed there were still opportunities for the authorities to be working more closely with business.
"Fraud is like the flu virus, as soon as one form of fraud is successfully tackled, such as the fight against long firm fraud in Scotland, it pops up in another form," he added.
"Therefore the fight is never won."
Lie Detector Tests in Glasgow
A polygraph (popularly referred to as a lie detector) measures and records several physiological indices such as blood pressure, pulse,respiration, and skin conductivity while the subject is asked and answers a series of questions.
The belief is that deceptive answers will produce physiological responses that can be differentiated from those associated with non-deceptive answers.
The polygraph was invented in 1921 by John Augustus Larson, a medical student at the University of California at Berkeley and a police officer of the Berkeley Police Department in Berkeley,
According to Encyclopædia Britannica, the polygraph was on its 2003 list of greatest inventions, described by the company as inventions that "have had profound effects on human life for better or worse."
Many members of the scientific community consider polygraphy to be pseudoscience. Nonetheless, in some countries polygraphs are used as an interrogation tool with criminal suspects or candidates for sensitive public or private sector employment.
US federal government agencies such as the FBI and the CIA and many police departments such as the LAPD use polygraph examinations to interrogate suspects and screen new employees. Within the US federal government, a polygraph examination is also referred to as apsychophysiological detection of deception (PDD) examination.
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